User Needs for Content

As a screen reader user, I need an alternative description of images, so that I can hear what they mean.

Need is met when

  1. Alt text is added to non-decorative images that aren't described in surrounding text, or;
  2. An empty alt text attribute is added to decorative images, so that assistive technologies are told that it does not have a text alternative.

Evidence of need

WCAG 2.0 - 1.1.1 Non-text Content

HTML elements

<image> <svg>

Responsibility

Content editor


As a user with a hearing impairment, I need to read an audio transcript, so I can understand what is being said.

Need is met when

Transcripts of audio are provided

Evidence of need

WCAG 2.0 - 1.2.1 Audio-only and Video Only (Pre-recorded)

HTML elements

<audio>

Responsibility

Content editor


As a user with a hearing impairment, I need to read captions of video, so I can understand what is being said.

Need is met when

Captions are added to video

Evidence of need

WCAG 2.0 - 1.2.2 Captions (Pre-recorded), 1.2.4 Captions (live)

HTML elements

<video>, videos on YouTube, Vimeo, etc.

Responsibility

Content editor


As a user with dyslexia, I need to get a visual sense of the page structure, so that I am not overwhelmed by text.

Need is met when

Lists are used to break up large paragraphs

Evidence of need

WCAG 2.0 - 1.3.1 Info and relationships

HTML elements

<h1> - <h6> <ol> <ul>

Responsibility

Developer


As a screen reader user, I need table headings so I know the row and column that data belows to.

Need is met when

Table headings are used

Evidence of need

WCAG 2.0 - 1.3.1 Info and relationships

HTML elements

<table> <th> <td>

Responsibility

Developer


As a screen reader user, I need to tab and arrow in a logical order, so I can understand the structure of the page.

Need is met when

The reading and navigation code order is logical

Evidence of need

WCAG 2.0 - 1.3.2 Meaningful Sequence

HTML elements

CSS

Responsibility

Developer


As a screen reader user, I need information in addition to shape and location, so that I can follow instructions.

Need is met when

Instructions aren't reliant on size, shape, visual location or sound

Evidence of need

WCAG 2.0 - 1.3.3 Sensory Characteristics

HTML elements

Text

Responsibility

Content editor


As a user who is color blind, I need more than color difference, so I can understand information.

Need is met when

Color alone isn't used to indicate action, response or to identify visual elements.

Evidence of need

WCAG 2.0 - 1.4.1 User of Color

HTML elements

CSS

Responsibility

Designer / Style Guide


As a screen reader user, I need to be able to stop, pause or mute audio, so I can hear my screen reader.

Need is met when

Users are allowed to stop, pause or mute audio

Evidence of need

WCAG 2.0 - 1.4.2 Audio Control

HTML elements

<audio> <video>

Responsibility

UX / Interaction designer


As a user with low vision, I need to have sufficient contrast between text and the background, so I can read the text.

Need is met when

Sufficient contast between text and background colors is provided

Evidence of need

WCAG 2.0 - 1.4.3 Contrast (Minimum)

HTML elements

CSS

Responsibility

Designer / Style Guide


As a user with low vision, I need to increase text size by up to 200%, so I can read without a screen magnifier.

Need is met when

Text resizing is allowed

Evidence of need

WCAG 2.0 - 1.4.4 Resize Text

HTML elements

<p>

Responsibility

UX / Interaction designer


As a user with low vision, I need text, rather than images of text, so that I can customize the font size.

Need is met when

Images of text are avoided

Evidence of need

WCAG 2.0 - 1.4.5 Images of Text

HTML elements

<imageo>

Responsibility

Content editor


As a user who cannot use a mouse, I need to be able to use a keyboard, so that I can navigate the page.

Need is met when

The page is navigable by keyboard alone

Evidence of need

WCAG 2.0 - 2.1.1 Keyboard

HTML elements

Keyboard

Responsibility

UX / Interaction designer


As a user who cannot use a mouse, I need to move in and out of components with a keyboard, so I don't get trapped.

Need is met when

The keyboard does not get trapped within a component

Evidence of need

WCAG 2.0 - 2.1.2 No Keyboard Trap

HTML elements

Keyboard

Responsibility

UX / Interaction designer


As a user with a mobility impairment, I need to be able to adjust time limits, so I can complete tasks.

Need is met when

Users can turn off or extend time limits

Evidence of need

WCAG 2.0 - 2.2.1 Timing Adjustable

HTML elements

Timing

Responsibility

UX / Interaction designer


As a user with an attention deficit disorder, I need to be able to pause, stop or animations, so that I am not distracted.

Need is met when

Animations can be paused

Evidence of need

WCAG 2.0 - 2.2.2 Pause, Stop, Hide

HTML elements

Timing

Responsibility

UX / Interaction designer


As a user with a photosensitive seizure disorder, I need to avoid three flashes in a second, so I do not have a seizure.

Need is met when

Content does not flash

Evidence of need

WCAG 2.0 - 2.3.1 Three flashes or below threshold

HTML elements

Timing

Responsibility

UX / Interaction designer


As a screen reader user, I need to skip blocks of navigation content, so I can get to the main content.

Need is met when

Skip to content links are present

Evidence of need

WCAG 2.0 - 2.4.1 Bypass Blocks

HTML elements

<a> <div role="banner"> <div role="main">

Responsibility

UX / Interaction designer


As a screen reader user, I need a meaningful page title, so that I know what part of a web site I am on.

Need is met when

A meaningful page title is provided

Evidence of need

WCAG 2.0 - 2.4.2 Page Titled

HTML elements

<title>

Responsibility

Content editor


As a screen reader user, I need to navigate links and forms in a logical order, so I can form a mental model of the page.

Need is met when

The navigation order of links and forms is logical

Evidence of need

WCAG 2.0 - 2.4.3 Focus Order

HTML elements

tabindex

Responsibility

UX / Interaction designer


As a screen reader user, I need link text that describes the destination page, so that I can navigate using links.

Need is met when

The link title matches the page title of the destination page

Evidence of need

WCAG 2.0 - 2.4.4 Link Purpose

HTML elements

<a>

Responsibility

Content editor


As a user with a cognitive impairment, I need an index, sitemap or search, so I can navigate in multiple ways.

Need is met when

A list of related pages, an index, a sitemap or a search is provided

Evidence of need

WCAG 2.0 - 2.4.5 Multiple Ways

HTML elements

Index, sitemap, search

Responsibility

UX / Interaction designer


As a screen reader user, I need informative headings, so that I get an overview of page content

Need is met when

The headings alone give the user a good idea of the page content

Evidence of need

WCAG 2.0 - 2.4.6 Headings and labels

HTML elements

<h1> <h2> <h3> <h4> <h5> <h6>

Responsibility

Content editor


As a screen reader user, I need a description of form input fields, so that I know what content to enter.

Need is met when

Labels, including required format, have been provided for input fields

Evidence of need

WCAG 2.0 - 2.4.6 Headings and labels

HTML elements

<label> <input> <fieldset> <legend>

Responsibility

Content editor


As a keyboard user, I need a keyboard focus indicator, so I know which element has keyboard focus.

Need is met when

An indication of keyboard focus is given

Evidence of need

WCAG 2.0 - 2.4.7 Focus Visible

HTML elements

CSS

Responsibility

Designer / Style Guide


As a screen reader user, I need to identify the language of the page, so my screen reader can speak with the right accent.

Need is met when

The lang attribute to identify the overall language of the page

Evidence of need

WCAG 2.0 - 3.1.1 Language of page

HTML elements

<html>

Responsibility

Developer


As a screen reader user, I need to identify changes in page language, so my screen reader uses the right accent.

Need is met when

The lang attribute is used to identify language changes in specific parts the page

Evidence of need

WCAG 2.0 - 3.1.2 Language of parts

HTML elements

<lang>

Responsibility

Developer


As a user with a disability, I need components that don't trigger changes on focus, so that the page is predictable.

Need is met when

Forms don't submit and pop-up windows don't open when elements receive focus

Evidence of need

WCAG 2.0 - 3.2.1 On Focus

HTML elements

<a> <form>

Responsibility

UX / Interaction designer


As a user with a disability, I need input fields that don't trigger automatic changes, so I can avoid confusion.

Need is met when

Input fields don't change the user interface automatically

Evidence of need

WCAG 2.0 - 3.2.2 On Input

HTML elements

<input>

Responsibility

UX / Interaction designer


As a user of a screen magnifier, I need consistent ordering of navigation, so I can locate repeated content.

Need is met when

Navigation is consistent

Evidence of need

WCAG 2.0 - 3.2.3 Consistent Navigation

HTML elements

Page templates

Responsibility

Designer / Style Guide


As a screen reader user, I need components that are identified consistently, so I can identify repeat functionality.

Need is met when

Components that have the same functionality are identified consistently

Evidence of need

WCAG 2.0 - 3.2.4 Consistent Identification

HTML elements

Page templates

Responsibility

Designer / Style Guide

As a screen reader user, I need to identify required form fields and formats, so I can enter the correct information.

Need is met when

Required input formats are identified and error messages are clearly displayed

Evidence of need

WCAG 2.0 - 3.3.1 Error Identification

HTML elements

<label> <input> <fieldset> <legend>

Responsibility

Developer


As a screen reader user, I need to hear the labels of form input fields so I can enter the correct information.

Need is met when

Forms use fieldsets, legends and labels

Evidence of need

WCAG 2.0 - 3.3.2 Labels or instructions

HTML elements

<label> <input> <fieldset> <legend>

Responsibility

Developer


As a user with a disability, I need suggestions on how to fix form input errors, so I can easily correct mistakes.

Need is met when

Input errors are clearly identified

Evidence of need

WCAG 2.0 - 3.3.3 Error Suggestion

HTML elements

<form>

Responsibility

Developer


As a user with a disability, I need to confirm, check or reverse legal and financial data, so I can avoid serious errors.

Need is met when

Users are allowed to confirm, correct or reverse changes to legal and financial data

Evidence of need

WCAG 2.0 - 3.3.4 Error Prevention (Legal Financial Data)

HTML elements

<form>

Responsibility

Developer


As a screen reader user, I need to access valid web pages, so my reader can parse the whole page.

Need is met when

Validation errors are avoided

Evidence of need

WCAG 2.0 - 4.1.1 Parsing

HTML elements

All

Responsibility

Developer


As a screen reader user, I need page elements with names, roles and values, so my reader can tell me what they are.

Need is met when

Valid markup is used

Evidence of need

WCAG 2.0 - 4.1.2 Name, Role, Value

HTML elements

All

Responsibility

Developer


Contact Us

For assistance or to report accessibility problems please contact:

Andrew Normand
Web Accessibility Lead
Email: anormand@unimelb.edu.au
Phone: +61 3 9035 4867